Safe medication, you must know why you know why

【Chatting Health】

The annual "National Safety Medicine Month" is carried out all over the country in November. This one -month activity aims to improve the knowledge and awareness of the people’s safety medication.At the launching ceremony of the "National Safety Medicine Month" this year, the Chinese Pharmaceutical Society issued the "Top Ten Public Medicine Tips in 2020", which are targeted at the common misunderstandings and blind spots for the public.Do you really take medicine?The safety of medication should not only know how to use it, but also know why.This edition picks up some of the medication prompts to interpret the scientific connotation behind the safe medication.

Who needs to be vaccinated?

Popularity (referred to as influenza) is a kind of acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. It is mainly transmitted through gas, droplets and other channels. It is urgent and infectious.The phenomenon of complications and death caused by it is very serious.Vaccination of flu vaccines every year is the most effective means to prevent influenza, which can significantly reduce the risk of inoculating the influenza and severe complications.In addition, because the symptoms of influenza are similar to the early symptoms of new coronary pneumonia, inoculation of flu vaccine can also reduce the interference of new coronary pneumonia.

Market supervisors explain the knowledge of drug safety for students.Photo of Liao Haijin/Guangming Picture

So, is it necessary to hit the flu vaccine every year?Is necessary.

After vaccination, protective antibodies will be produced in the body. The antibody will last about one year in the human body, but the antibody level will continue to decline over time.In addition, the ingredients contained in the vaccine each year will change due to different popular advantages, so they need to be vaccinated every year to ensure that the body antibody matches the popular strain.Most of the influenza appears from November to February of the year, and vaccination 1 to 2 months before the peak of influenza epidemic can better play the protection of the vaccine. Therefore, September and October are the best time to take over.Can be vaccinated.At any stage of pregnancy during pregnancy, pregnant women can be vaccinated.It is recommended that as long as the influenza vaccine starts to supply this year, it can be vaccinated as soon as possible.

Which groups of influenza vaccine adapt to?Combined with the continuous global background of the new crown pneumonia, the "China Institute of Prevention Vaccine Prevention (2020-2021)" issued by the China Disease Prevention and Control Center is recommended to be the target of influenza vaccine in vaccination: the following groups are recommended:

Medical staff, including clinical treatment personnel, public health personnel, health quarantine personnel, etc.; Pension institutions, long -term nursing institutions, welfare homes and other people gathering fragile people and employees and employees;, The supervisors and staff of the supervisor institutions; other high -risk people, including the elderly at the age of 60 and above, the June -June to 5 -year -old children, patients with chronic diseases, family members and caregivers of infants under June.And pregnant women or women who are preparing to get pregnant in the influenza season.For those who are ≥ June and have no taboos, they can voluntarily vaccinate the flu vaccine according to specific circumstances.

Can treating colds be used in Chinese and Western medicine?

In order to reduce the symptoms, shorten the course of the disease, recover early, and some symptomatic drugs can be used during cold.Such as headache, dizziness, and soreness of the whole body, you can choose analgesic drugs: acetaminol, aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.Those with severe nasal congestion can choose nasal mucosal blood vessel contraction: pseudo ephedrine or 1%ephedrine solution drip nose.Fluttering nose can choose anti -allergic drugs: chlorophenicamin (poker Minamin), phenyraramid, etc.

When you choose to treat a cold, the concept has changed. You can understand that general colds do not need to use antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics can be used only when secondary bacterial infections such as cough or pus, and leukocyte increases.However, in order to quickly relieve symptoms, patients may choose two or more drugs for drugs, especially Chinese and Western medicines.This needs to pay attention to check the drug component to avoid the toxic side effects caused by excessive use of drugs.

Children are vaccination.Liu Mancang Photo/Guangming Picture

For example, the acetaminol has a strong analgesic effect. It is widely used in many compound cold medicines. Common ones are: phenolinin (pseudolytic alcohol, hydrochloride hydrochride, hydrocomroxide, desertic acid), Compound aminopine amine (to acetaminol, diamptide hydrochloride, artificial beef yellow, caffeine, macar acid chlorophenamin), ammonia coffee Huangmin (to acetamol, caffeine, chlorine chloride, chloride, and chlorideBenamin, artificial beef yellow) and so on.The maximum number of acetamin phenol does not exceed 2 grams a day.Excessive use of acetamine can cause severe liver damage, and strictly follow the doctor’s advice.

In addition, composite cold medicines contain anti -allergic ingredients, such as chlorophenicamin and phenyllaming. These medicines have drowsiness after taking them.Those who engage in driving, mechanical operations, and high -altitude operations should be used with caution.Compound cold medicine contains pseudohadine. The following patients are not recommended: diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, prostate hypertrophy, hyperthyroidism, closure glazed eyes, pregnant women, lactating women.

Do you need to take medicine for gout patients?

Gout is a lifelong disease that cannot be cured, but it can be controlled by drug treatment to reduce the entanglement of gout.During the acute seizures, autumn waters and non -steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs (吲哚 吲哚 辛, ibuprofen) can be used to alleviate local pain in the joints.It is seriously accompanied by systemic symptoms and invalid the treatment of sephenine or non -steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs. It can be treated with glucocorticoids. Hormones need to be used under the guidance of a doctor. The process of withdrawal should gradually be reduced to avoid rebound.

Take anti -gaseous drugs should be carried out under the guidance of doctors and pharmacists.But patients often ignore long -term insistence on treatment because of "not pain and pain".Hyperuricemia period is the early stage of gout. In addition to the increase in blood uric acid levels, patients with no gout symptoms and signs, but about 20%of patients will eventually develop into gout.Patients in this period should take a healthy diet, appropriate exercise, and standardized work and rest.Taking medications during gout intermittent period is the core. It can be used to promote uric acid excretion with propylcopycoprit, phenobenomesmonium and other drugs, or non -Tisol, allopurine alcohol and other drugs to inhibit the production of uric acid, control uric acid at normal levels, prevent concurrent concurrency,Symptoms.The chronic arthritis period is based on "comprehensive therapy". In addition to adhering to healthy living habits, long -term uric acid reduction treatment is indispensable.

Technicians are explaining the knowledge of authenticity and inferiority of the authenticity of Chinese medicinal materials.Cao Jianxiong Photo/Guangming Picture

In addition, in daily life, pay attention to drinking plenty of water. Daily drinking water is between 2500 and 3000 ml, which can promote uric acid excretion.Do not eat high purine foods, such as bone soup, pork liver, beef, lamb, seafood, etc.Do not overeating, do not drink alcohol (especially beer), do not drink high sugar -containing drinks, such as cola and Sprite. At the same time, pay attention to the joint warming to avoid cold, trauma and infection.

Should children cough with cough?

As soon as the child coughs, parents are very worried.In fact, cough is a common symptom of respiratory diseases.When the respiratory mucosa is stimulated by foreign objects or secretions, cough causes cough.Cough is a protective reflection of the respiratory tract for the human body.Cough can eliminate the secretions and foreign bodies of the respiratory tract, and keep the respiratory tract clean and unobstructed.Therefore, in a sense, cough is beneficial.However, strong and frequent pathological coughs are not good for health, and we need to actively find the cause of cough, so as to treat symptomatic treatment and restore health as soon as possible.Do not hear the cough, blindly treat it with cough medicine immediately.

If it is caused by a cough caused by the respiratory tract foreign body, you must seek medical treatment in time, and take out the respiratory tract foreign objects as quickly as possible. Only cough medicines cannot be reached to cough eyes, and the child’s condition may be delayed. If it is infected by bacteria or virusesThen seek medical treatment in time so that doctors give appropriate anti -infective treatment and solve problems from the source.

For children with sputum cough, parents should keep in mind the principle of "safety expectorant" priority, and try to use a single expectorant drug with a single ingredient, such as bromine new and ampaceous puffs.And pay attention to avoid using strong town cough at the same time, because the expectorant drugs are dissolved and diluted to adhere to sputum, which enhances the cilia movement to promote the discharge of sputum.It will also make sputum sticky and more difficult to cough.In addition, because the antitussive drugs have reduced the symptoms of cough, it may cover the child’s true condition and lead to delay treatment.If there is a severe dry cough, frequent cough and other cough are required, you should choose to use the appropriate drug under the guidance of a doctor and pharmacist.It should be noted to avoid the use of a centralized cough with reasable and opioid ingredients and addictive.

If the child is less than 4 months old cough, or it is accompanied by dyspnea, poor mental, vomiting after a cough, or coughing for more than 2 weeks and still does not improve, parents should immediately take the child to a regular hospital for treatment.

How should the medication time on the manual understand?

Choosing the right time to take drugs can not only effectively protect the treatment effect of the drug, but also reduce the side effects of the drug.The interval time for taking medicine is determined by the dynamic dynamics of the metabolism in the body. Only by taking the medicine according to the time interval specified in the instructions can we ensure that the drug maintains a relatively stable treatment concentration in the human body.If you want to achieve the best treatment effect, you cannot shorten the medication time or irregular medication without authorization, so as not to cause the drug poisoning or side effects to be too high or the concentration is too low, or the concentration is not as expected.

Pharmaceuticals in the drug manual:

1. Morning service: Refers to 1 hour before eating breakfast after getting up in the morning. For example, if the anti -tuberculosis drugs Liping and the cigarettes are served in the early morning, it can produce a good sterilization effect.

2. Ethalate: Many people think that as long as you keep the empty stomach when taking medicine, you can go to dinner immediately after taking the medicine.This is actually a wrong point.It refers to taking medicine 1 to 2 hours before meals or 2 hours after meal. For example, enteric -soluble tablets, the drug is not easy to be disintegrated in the gastric juice, and it will only be absorbed in the intestine.

3. Before meals: 30 to 60 minutes before three meals.There is less food in the stomach before meals, which is conducive to the absorption of drugs. Generally, it is generally irritating or less irritating to the stomach or the drugs that need to act on the stomach., Souric suppression, cephalosporin, antidiarrheal medicine, etc.

4. During meals: refers to a moment before meals or a moment after meals; the middle finger is taken with food with food, such as glucoside inhibitors (Akaba sugar) in the small intestine to competitive glycoside and hydrolytic enzymes, so that the blood glucose after meals increases the increase in blood sugar after meals.Decreased, only taking medicine at the same time can the treatment effect.

5. After meals: 30 minutes to 1 hour after meals.

6. Before bed: Refers to 15 to 30 minutes before bedtime.

7. When necessary: refers to pain or emergencies, take it immediately.

8. Once once a day: once in the morning or evening every day, and keep taking the medicine at the same time every day.

9. Twice a day: Generally once a day breakfast and dinner, about 12 hours apart.

10. Three times a day: Strictly speaking, three times a day refers to taking the medicine at 24 hours a day and night, that is, every 8 hours.However, in actual life, for patients to comply with better compliance, it is generally recommended that patients to sleep in three paragraphs to determine the administration interval.It is generally recommended to take medicine before dinner or after dinner.However, some drugs, such as antibacterial drugs, antiepileptic drugs, and Parkinson’s treatment drugs, will clearly stipulate the time of taking the medicine, such as "every 8 hours of medicine", and should be implemented strictly in accordance with the instructions.

11. Many times a day: try to divide within 24 hours and coordinate with the schedule.

12. The dose of glucocorticoids is between 7 am and 8 o’clock in the morning.Because the rules of day and night secretion of glucocorticoids changes, the peaks of the secretion of itself are from 7 to 8 am. If you take exogenous cortex hormones at this time, the inhibitory effect of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis will minimize, thereby reducing the minimum, thereby reducing itside effect.

At the same time, the use of Chinese and Western medicine in life is quite common, and whether to take it at intervals also needs to be considered.The Chinese and Western Medicine Federation is easy to cause drugs to interact. For example, the same use of black and vitamin B12 will reduce the biological utilization of vitamin B12.Therefore, when we use the combination of Chinese and Western medicine, we also need to have a certain time interval. Generally speaking, the interval should be more than half an hour.

Which medicines need to put the refrigerator?

The refrigerator is a good tool for storing food to keep the food as well as as much as possible.Some people are worried that the medicines are also prone to deterioration when the indoor temperature is too high, so all the medicines are put in the refrigerator.Is this really right?

Generally speaking, most drugs can be stored at room temperature conditions.However, the storage conditions are improper, and the "good friend" of the refrigerator will also help.There is a suitable temperature in the refrigerator, and there are also high humidity. It is vulnerable to moisture, such as tablets, capsules, bulk agents, etc., but will accelerate the deterioration. Syphroditizers may reduce the solubility of drugs in syrup at a lower temperature, or evenThere will be sugar to analyze the crystals, which will cause the drug concentration to be inaccurate, which will affect the efficacy.

Compared with the drugs stored at room temperature, there are not many drugs stored in cold. The temperature of the refrigerator stored drugs is generally.The agent or other biological products can be stored at 2 to 8 degrees Celsius in the refrigerator of the refrigerator to ensure the quality of the drug.

1. Biological preparation: undeveloped insulin.Biological preparations are easy to deteriorate and decompose because the active ingredients are easy to deteriorate, so they need to be stored in cold.

2. Blood preparation: If there are human leukin, immunoglobulin, etc. at home, the refrigerator needs to be stored.

3. Some antibacterial drugs with special labels: cephalosporin injection, cephalospetone injection, etc.These antibiotics are greatly affected by temperature and must be kept at low temperature.

4. Live bacterial preparations: certain micro -ecological preparations such as oral bisidobacteria preparations, triangular live bacteria preparations, etc.

5. Supposterum: vaginal bolt, anal embolism, etc.If the supposion temperature is too high, it will not be easy to use, so when the temperature is high in summer, the refrigerator should be stored.

It should be noted that although refrigeration and freezing have a difference, it is very different for drugs.Refrigeration usually refers to 2 to 8 degrees Celsius. Frozen generally refers to about minus 18 degrees Celsius.Once wrong, the medicine will not be used, bringing unnecessary losses to patients.

What should I do after the hypoglycemic medicine is missed?

Diabetes is caused by insulin secretion or use of defects. Metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a common and more disease, and is a global public health problem that seriously threatens human health.

Diabetes need to be used for life. Patients should choose the most suitable and most effective drugs for themselves under the guidance of a doctor or pharmacist, and follow the doctor’s advice on time as the medicine.Blood glucose should be kept in a reasonable and smooth fluctuation range.Sudden high blood sugar will increase the risk of acute and chronic complications, which will increase the condition.When the patient needs to adjust the type or dose of the medication due to changes in the condition, he should follow the doctor’s order and adjust it under the guidance of a doctor or pharmacist.Do not randomly or decrease the dose or change the drug according to conscious symptoms, so as not to cause blood sugar fluctuations.

Taking hypoglycemic drugs is very particular about medication time, not all hypoglycemic drugs take the same time.Generally speaking, sulfur and non -sulfur, 30 minutes before meals; double -crickets, during meals or after meals; glitone, can be taken before and after meals.

Demonstrate hypoglycemic drugs may cause blood sugar fluctuations or blood sugar.But just taking hypoglycemic drugs can easily cause hypoglycemia.What should I do?This depends on what medicine and missing time.Such as sulfurbus and non -sulfurmine to promote insulin secretions can easily cause hypoglycemia. If the leakage time is close to the next take of medication, do not make up;Enzyme inhibitors are leaky, and can be replenished after meals; if it is a drug leakage once a day, you can make up for it at noon, and you do n’t need to make up at night, especially before going to bed, it is easy to cause low blood sugar at night.

Diabetes is caused by a variety of factors, including bad lifestyles.There are many other factors for the cause of complications of diabetic patients. In addition to the rise in blood sugar, there are still many other factors. These factors are medical known as "risk factors", such as age ≥40 years, weight overweight, sitting sitting lifestyle, hypertension, and abnormal blood lipids.Therefore, it is also necessary to take comprehensive measures at the same time. In addition to choosing the appropriate drug, it is necessary to change the poor lifestyle, otherwise it is impossible to obtain the ideal treatment effect.

What drugs can not be taken during lactation?

Mother’s medication during breastfeeding is related to the health of mothers and infants, and they must be treated carefully.How to make a safe and reasonable medication during breastfeeding can allow mothers to recover as soon as possible without affecting baby health?Pay special attention to the following points:

1. Try to choose a single ingredient medicine to avoid composite preparations.

2. Select the quick -release agent type to avoid slow/controlling dosage forms.

3. Choose the medication time to take it immediately after breastfeeding, and extend the next breastfeeding time. It is best to choose a baby to sleep for a long time.

4. Pay attention to the baby’s physical changes during the medication and whether there are adverse reactions.

5. Commonly used drugs that can be used safely during lactation: in antibiotics, penicillin and cephalosporins; colds and heat drugs, which are acetaminol and ibuprofen; anti -allergic drugs, dectorherazine, etc.

6. Some drugs will enter the baby’s body through the mother’s milk. During breastfeeding, the drugs that affect the normal development of infant tissue organs should be disabled during breastfeeding.For example, after the iodine of the milk mother takes iodine, 27 % of the drugs are expelled from the milk through the milk, which inhibit the child’s pituitary gland to promote the promotion of pirtein and affect the child’s development and function;It is very high. It is positive as the dosage of the breasts. Eating by the breasts can inhibit the life of the child’s life; the application of tetracycline drugs can cause tetracycline teeth;Breast poisoning; Nursing Nurses use amino -gravidine medicines can affect the hematopoietic function of the breast; the application of sulfa drugs can cause nuclear jaundice to occur in the breast; after the application of the ground and the Western (stable), the breast weight can be reduced, hyperbilotin ledine; Milk application cards and galcophamithromy can make the breast poisoning.If it is urgently needed because of the mother’s disease, breastfeeding should be suspended and milk is used regularly.Passed the 5 to 7 half -life of the drug to restore breastfeeding.

Finally, it is reminded that patients with breastfeeding should not take medicine by themselves. Under the guidance of doctors and pharmacists, priority can be selected to choose drugs that can be used safely during lactation, and the impact of drugs on babies should be reduced as much as possible.

"Guangming Daily" (November 22, 2020, 06 version)

Source: "Guangming Daily"

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